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 on: October 03, 2014, 12:07:49 PM 
Started by philip - Last post by philip

 on: October 02, 2014, 02:52:16 PM 
Started by StuSEL - Last post by StuSEL

 on: October 02, 2014, 04:19:43 AM 
Started by swa4678 - Last post by StuSEL
Seriously.  To me the most remarkable thing about this clip is the helicopter pilot.  I have no idea what he said, and he clearly didn't follow the tower's instructions.  Yikes.
Yeah this is just stupid. Can't even believe it.

 on: October 01, 2014, 06:51:30 PM 
Started by janlam01 - Last post by Adrian8
Thanks again for the clips.

 on: October 01, 2014, 12:12:00 PM 
Started by bd1111 - Last post by bd1111
Has sounded fine for the last few days. Thanks. FWIW, the feed is missing Freq. 128.75 which is the Tower control for departures on Runway 25.

 on: October 01, 2014, 11:35:10 AM 
Started by stonemin - Last post by swa4678
As marty already pointed out, there is still some confusion about IFR/VFR and IMC/VMC. Nothing in the set of Instrument Flight Rules says that visual cues shall never be the primary method of, for example, navigating to a runway. After all, that's what a visual approach is.

so i wonder why visual approach is IFR.
Because it wouldn't make sense for it to be a VFR procedure. If you're flying VFR, you're already on one big visual approach (of sorts; you just don't have the runway or a preceding aircraft in sight at all times) to your destination since you must remain in VMC at all times.

With IFR, however, that's not the case. They will be using navaids or following vectors from the moment they depart up until they reach the terminal area of their destination. If the weather is VMC, they could save the controllers some hassle of getting them setup for an instrument approach by just proceeding visually to the runway. Hence why the "visual approach" procedure was created for such situations.

 on: October 01, 2014, 10:07:06 AM 
Started by stonemin - Last post by martyj19
Once more, whether you are on instruments or not has nothing to do with whether you are under IFR or VFR.  You have misunderstood that part.

You need to be on instruments any time you do not have sufficient vision outside the aircraft to keep it stable and upright.  You can only legally go below VFR minimums when you are IFR.  But you will fly visually when you are on a visual approach or the part of an instrument approach below minimums.

 on: October 01, 2014, 03:26:54 AM 
Started by stonemin - Last post by stonemin
really thank you..

actually, i understood that IFR means pilot must depend on the instrument not visual so far as. so i wonder why visual approach is IFR. because visual approach needs VMC and pilot must see the airport or the preceding aircraft.

but according to your answer, IFR means pilot mostly depends on the instrument, and also depends on their eye. is it correct?

if yes, i have misunderstood the meaning of IFR. Thanks for your answer. it really help me to understand about IFR and VFR.

 on: October 01, 2014, 12:58:00 AM 
Started by stonemin - Last post by martyj19
Under IFR, you can fly visually rather than on instruments if you are in VMC.  But remember that large aircraft usually engage the autopilot so it is flying the cleared route very precisely without any eyes involved.  No, IFR does not include VFR.  You are on one set of rules or the other at any one moment in time.

It does happen that a VFR flight starts to get into IMC or needs to get down through clouds and then requests an IFR clearance.  Assuming that the pilot and aircraft are IFR rated and equipped it could be granted.  We call that a "pop-up clearance" or an "air file".  Once accepted by ATC the flight is then under IFR.  More than likely you wouldn't then transition back to VFR, though you could.  This is called "cancelling IFR".  Also, scheduled air service is routinely filed IFR and end of discussion no matter what the weather.

There are two main reasons why IFR flight has a cleared route.  One is that the controller will know what to expect from the aircraft.  It will fly the cleared route.  This is essential to the controller's job of maintaining separation.  Two is that in the event of radio communications failure, the aircraft will fly the cleared route.  When that happens, the controller will move other aircraft away from the radio-failure aircraft.

When you are VFR and on a VFR altitude like 3500 you will maintain your altitude and fly around the cloud or you will climb or descend to another VFR altitude to avoid the cloud.  You are not free to choose your altitude.  See

 on: October 01, 2014, 12:56:31 AM 
Started by stonemin - Last post by swa4678
Is it correct that IFR can have visual flight(depending pilot's eye) not instrument in VMC? If yes, Does IFR include VFR?
IFR and VFR don't directly correlate to what the weather or visibility is. Each is a set of rules (the "FR" stands for "flight rules" in both cases) that you are going to follow as a pilot. Yes, in the case of VFR, several of those rules relate to meeting certain weather/visibility minima... but that's not the only difference, hence why there is a distinction between VFR and VMC (or IFR and IMC).

I know VFR flight can fly everywhere they want to go as maintaining VMC.
Careful there - not everywhere. There are several of examples where VFR flight isn't allowed, such as:
  • Above 17,999 ft MSL (and below 60,001 ft MSL).
  • Any time the visibility drops below a certain number of miles or the pilot can't maintain a minimum number of feet above/below/horizontally from a cloud (the numbers change depending upon which airspace you're in or even what time of day it is).
  • Any time the pilot can't meet minimum requirements to operate in a given classification of airspace (such as the inability to receive permission to enter it if it's controlled airspace).
None of those apply to flights operating under an IFR clearance.

so Is it possible IFR flight fly everywhere they want to go(not planned route) and when they encounter IMC, they use instrument(IFR) and just keep flying(in the IMC)?

why IFR flight must get clearance(including route), and fly as planned route?
How would the controller be able to provide positive separation if (s)he has no idea where you're going? How would (s)he know when you're providing your own separation and when you're depending upon the controller to do so?

The answer to both ("not possible") explains why the answer is: no, that situation is not (and could not be) permitted.

and I know there's vfr altitude(like 3,500ft, 5,500ft), and i have some question about it.
It sounds like you're referring to a "VFR cruising altitude" when you're above 3,000 ft AGL. In other words, you're referring to 14 CFR 91.159.

I believe VFR flight are free in flying, and they just see and avoid some obstacle. But when they fly as vfr altitude and encounter cloud, i think they must keep VMC so they should descend or climb to avoid cloud. it means they have free in choosing altitude. So i think the vfr altitude disturbs VFR flight to maintain VMC. Why is there vfr altitude which restrict them maintaining VMC ?

Someone could probably come up with a few reasons, but two good ones would be:
  • They help lessen the probability that someone is going to appear at your 12 o'clock, opposite direction, same altitude, converging very quickly.
  • They help you (and the controller) maintain appropriate vertical separation between IFR traffic in Class B or Class C airspace (minimum is 500 ft).
And again, I'd be hesitant to agree with a wide open statement such as "they have [freedom] in choosing altitude." If you don't have permission to enter controlled airspace and suddenly climb into it to avoid a cloud, it's great that you avoided the cloud... but you still violated the Class B airspace and might end up receiving a phone number to call to discuss a possible pilot deviation.

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